NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Studies (Economics) Chapter 2 – People as Resource
|Subject||Social Science Economics|
|Chapter Name||People as Resource|
The Solutions for Chapter 2 of Economics are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 9 for other subjects.
Exercises Page No 27
1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
‘People as a resource’ is a term that means how the population can be an asset and not a liability. It a way of referring to the working class of society in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. The population becomes human capital when an investment is done in the form of education and training. Education and health also help human beings to be an asset to the economy. Thus, people as a resource refers to the working population that results in the development of society.
2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical Capital?
Human resources are different from other resources like land and physical capital because human beings can use other resources to give out productive output. However, resources like land and physical capital are dependent on human resource for their use and cannot give any productive output all by themselves.
3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Education plays a very important role in human capital formation for the following reasons:
- An educated human can be considered an asset for the economy and not a liability.
- Education can help an individual make better use of economic opportunities. It helps in enhancing the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of the Government.
- It enhances individual productivity in terms of quality and quantity.
- Because being educated can help the economic status of an individual, it also develops the consciousness towards society.
- An educated person is also aware of health and hygiene, and it will ultimately result in better health of the people of a country.
4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Health plays a very important role in human capital formation in the following ways:
- If an individual is healthy, he or she may have better immunity to fight illness.
- Being healthy will also increase the overall outcome of an individual.
- The health of an individual is directly proportional to the work he does. Thus better health will increase efficiency.
The above-mentioned points prove that if better health care measures are taken up, and an individual in a country becomes more healthy, the human capital and productivity will also increase.
5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
If an individual is healthy, then he or she may be able to give a better outcome in terms of their work lives. The efficiency of a healthy person is higher than that of an unhealthy person. A healthy person can spend more time working in comparison to an unhealthy person. Hence, health plays a very important role in an individual’s working life.
6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
The various activities that come under the primary, secondary and tertiary sector are as follows:
|Primary Sector||Secondary Sector||Tertiary Sector|
|Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry, farming, mining and quarrying||Manufacturing||Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism and insurance|
7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
The activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities. They can be divided into two types: market activities and non-market activities. Market activities involve the activities performed for pay or profit, and non-market activities include the production done for self-consumption.
The activities that add no value to the national income are called non- economic activities. The domestic chore is an example of non-economic activities.
8. Why are women employed in low paid work?
The wage distribution among men and women has been a major concern for society. Women are mostly paid less than women men, and one major reason for this is the meagre education qualification of women. They are employed in sectors which do no provide them with proper maternity leaves, child care benefits and other provisions and are also responsible for managing the household work. Hence they are paid less than men. Skill is another reason why wages for women are less than men. Men are considered more skilful in comparison to women, despite equal physical work. Due to these reasons, women are employed in low paid work.
9. How will you explain the term unemployment?
A situation in which skilled and abled people do not get gainful work at a decent wage is called unemployment. Rural and urban areas both have unemployment. In the case of the rural population, there is seasonal unemployment, and in urban areas, there is educated unemployment.
10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Rural areas have cases of both seasonal and disguised unemployment. Seasonal unemployment is when a person is unable to find jobs during a few months of the year. This mostly happens for farmers who are unemployed for a part of the year when no crops are grown.
Disguised unemployment is when people appear to be employed. When the number of people working on agricultural land is higher than the number of people actually required to work, this is considered as an example of disguised unemployment. If a piece of land requires only three people to work on it, but rather five are working on it, the two extra people are an example of disguised unemployment.
11. Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?
Educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon in India. Youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are unable to get jobs in India. This is because the education system in India labels anyone above the age of 18 years eligible to work. This leaves the youth unskilled and ultimately, unemployed. It is important that an individual does not only have a degree but must also be skilled enough to get a job.
12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
There are three types of activities in which the employment sector is divided: the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. The largest part of Indi’s population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, yet there is a massive scope of disguised unemployment in the agricultural sector. Hence the manufacturing sector, a secondary activity is the one where the maximum part of the population can be given employment due to the increase in the number of industries.
13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of educated unemployed?
Some measures that can be taken in the education system to mitigate the problem of educated unemployed are as follows:
- Make secondary level education more career-oriented. This practice will not just help individuals get an education but also enhance their skills and get better employment opportunities.
- An individual should be able to choose the subjects that suit his or her abilities.
- New subjects and fields of study should be introduced at the school level, which can be opted a career in the future. This will open an opportunity for students to plan their future options at school level itself.
14. Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Students must answer this question based on their own experience.
15. Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?
Human capital can be considered to be the best out of the land, labour, physical and human capital. This is because the other resources cannot be used all by themselves, and only humans can use other resources and get productive outcomes from it.
Chapter 2 – People as Resource Summary
The Chapter ‘People as Resource’ is an effort to explain the population as an asset for the economy rather than a liability. In this chapter, students will study the purpose of educated humans and how they contribute to society.
You will also study:
1. Economic Activities by Men and Women
2. Quality of Population
- Seasonal Unemployment
- Disguised Unemployment